Below is a list of relevant papers published in peer-reviewed journals. The abstract of each paper can be read here. There is also a link to the source. Papers are related to cerebral palsy, disability, activity, standing, movement, use of devices etc.
For individuals with motor impairments, dynamic standing has been proposed as an opportunity for regular daily physical activity. Records of 46 patients (50% cerebral palsy; 50% diverse syndromes) were evaluated. Improvements were found for: passive assisted motion (79%), stimulation of intestinal functions (71%), body stability (64%), joint mobility (56%), secure means of allowing supine position (52%), and revision of abnormal motion patterns (48%).
Ana Pekanovic, Walter Strobl, Ulrich Hafkemeyer, Jens Kleine, Peter Bernius, Rolf Burghardt, Caroline Schmidt-Lucke
Dynamic standing using the Innowalk was the preferred alternative from the family perspective, as it had lower costs and greater benefits than the standard care of static standing. Additional factors that may affect family preferences towards DyS or StS need to be investigated. From both a healthcare and a societal perspective, DyS was better but more costly than StS. If the value of a one-unit change in quality of life as measured in the CPCHILD score is considered to be above €100, DyS can be considered to be cost-effective. These findings may contribute to the development of individualized standing recommendations.
Katarina Lauruschkus, Johan Jarl, Katharina Fasth Gillstedt and Åsa B. Tornberg.
The main finding of this exercise study is that 42% (n = 10) had mild hyperlactatemia at rest, and one participant had blood lactate levels corresponding to metabolic acidosis (Figure 1). However, the most important finding was that the children and adolescents with the highest levels of lactate at rest had the most positive effect of exercise on lowering the lactate levels after only one bout of dynamic standing (Innowalk). Moreover, the higher GMFCS-E&R levels seem to elevate resting levels of blood lactate.
Petra Lundstöm, Katarina Lauruschkus, Åsa Andersson, Åsa B. Tornberg
In the last two decades, a growing interest has been focused on gait and balance robot assisted rehabilitation in children with neurological disabilities. Robotic devices allow the implementation of intensive, task-specific training fostering functional recovery and neuroplasticity phenomena. This systematic review aims to provide an overview of the existing literature on robotic systems for the rehabilitation of gait and balance in children with neurological disabilities and their rehabilitation applications.
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Valè et al.
Early mobilization is regarded as important in patients with severe acquired brain injury. The Innowalk Pro was in a singled-subject experimental study considered as a feasible and motivating intervention. Heart rate tended to decrease during Innowalk Pro training, while the blood pressure remained stable.
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Alhed Piene Wesche, Liv Inger Strand, Vivien Jørgensen, Arve Opheim & Ellen Høyer
Aim of the study was to compare the effects of static standing (StS) versus dynamic standing (DyS) on passiv range of motion (PROM) and spasticity in the the hip. Twenty non-ambulatory children with CP participated in an exercise intervention study with a crossover design. Thirty minutes of DyS increased PROM and spasticity and four months of DyS increased PROM in the hip.
Åsa B. Tornberg, Katarina Lauruschkus
Raw data of nine studies were pooled including a total of 31 patients observed between 2009 and 2017. A total of 94% used the Innowalk in a home-based or day-care setting. For nearly all individuals (94%), improvements were recorded for: walking or weight-bearing transfer (n = 13), control/strength of the trunk or head (n = 6), joint mobility (n = 14), sleep (n = 4 out of 6/67%), or muscle strength (n = 17), vital functions (n = 16), bowel function (n = 10), attention/orientation (n = 2). PROM of the hip (flexion, abduction, and adduction) significantly (p < 0.001 for multiple comparisons) increased after 1 month (p < 0.05 flexion, adduction) and further after 5 months (p < 0.05 each) in contrast (p < 0.05 each) to a control group with state-of-the-art therapy.
Caroline Schmidt-Lucke, Jana Käferle, Britt-Marie Rydh Berner, Lotta Ahlborg, Hege Marie Hansen, Ulrika Skjellvik Tollefsen, Tonje Thon, Rikke Damkjær Moen, Ana Pekanovic, Åsa B. Tornberg, Katarina Lauruschkus
This prospective, controlled study included 24 children with hCP. All children attended to a standard physiotherapy rehabilitation (PTR) program (three days a week for 12 weeks); those in the study group (n=12) also attended to an Robotic Gait Training (RGT) program three times a week. The evaluations were similar for both groups before treatment. After treatment, walking speed, endurance and peripheral O2 saturation were increased and balance abilities and functional performances improved in the RGT group as compared with the pre-treatment evaluations; these improvements in balance and functional performance were generally preserved after 3 months of treatment. An increase in 6-min walking distance and a partial increase in gross motor functions and functional muscle strength were observed in the control group; however, these abilities were not preserved after the treatment.
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Yazıcı M, Livanelioğlu A, Gücüyener K, Tekin L, Sümer E, Yakut Y.
Intensive training was associatedd with enhanced gross motor progress over an average of 2.9 years in children with CP.
Gunfrid V. Størvold, Reidun B. Jahnsen, Kari Anne I. Evensen, Ulla K. Romild, Grete H. Bratberg
People who receive electromechanical-assisted gait training in combination with physiotherapy after stroke are more likely to achieve independent walking than people who receive gait training without these devices. Specifically, people in the first three months after stroke and those who are not able to walk seem to benefit most from this type of intervention.
Jan Mehrholz, Simone Thomas, Cordula Werner, Joachim Kugler, Marcus Pohl, Bernhard Elsner
For children with CP, there is evidence that aerobic exercise may result in a small improvement in gross motor function, though it does not improve gait speed.
Ryan JM., Cassidy EE., Noorduyn SG., O'Connell NE.
How do parents of children with cerebral palsy (CP) experience their child's participation in physical activities and to identify facilitators and barriers for being physically active and reducing sedentary behaviour?
Lauruschkus K., Nordmark E. & Hallström I.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of PAP for children with CP and its effectiveness on participation in physical activity and sedentary behaviour.
Katarina Lauruschkus, Inger Hallström, Lena Westbom, Åsa Tornberg and Eva Nordmark
Weight bearing exercise has a significant effect on improving BMD of the femur in children with CP.
Kim SJ., Kim SN, Yang YN., Lee IS, Koh SE.
Strobl, W.M., Senghaas, P., Schuseil, J. & Kollaschinski, M.
Verschuren, O., Peterson, M.D., Balemans, A.D.J. & Hurvitz, E.A.
We examined estimates of chronic conditions in a population-representative sample of adults with CP.
Mark D.Peterson, Jennifer M.Ruan, Edward A.Huvitx and Elham Mahmoudi
Lauruschkus, K., Nordmark, E. & Hallström, I.
Maltais, D.B., Wiart, L., Fowler, E., Verschuren, O. & Damiano, D. L.
Verschuren, O., Peterson, M.D., Leferink, S. & Darrah, J.
The aim of this study was to describe systematically the best available intervention evidence for children with cerebral palsy.
Novak I., McIntyre S., Morgan C., Campbell L., Dark L., Morton N., Stumbles E., Wilson SA., Goldsmith S.
The aims of this study were to describe the participation in physical activity of children with cerebral palsy (CP) at school and during leisure time and to identify characteristics associated with physical activity.
Lauruschkus K., Westbom L., Hallström I., Wagner P., Nordmark E.
Dynamic standing demonstrated the potential of moderate-magnitude, low-frequency loading to increase cortical BMD. Further investigations could provide insight into the mechanisms of bone health induced through loading interventions.
Damcott M., Blochlinger S., Foulds R.
Analyse factors associated with fractures in children with cerebral palsy (CP) in different levels of Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS).
Uddenfeldt Wort, U., Nordmark, E., Wagner, P., Duppe, H., & Westbom, L.
Systematic review and evidence-based clinical recommendations for dosing of pediatric supported standing programs.
Paleg, G.S., Smith, B.A. & Glickman, L.B.
A pilot randomized controlled trial.
Bryant, E., Pountney, T., Williams, H. & Edelman, N.
Verschuren, O., Darrah, J., Novak, I., Ketelaar, M. & Wiart,L.
Carlon, S.L., Taylor, N.F., Dodd, K.J. & Shields, N.
Glickman, L.B., Geigle, P.R. & Paleg, G.S.
Zwier, J.N., Schie, P.E., Becher, J.G., Smits, D., Gorter, J.W. & Dallmeijer, A.J.
Kuenzle, C. & Brunner, R.
Eisenberg, S., Zuk, L., Carmeli, E. & Katz-Leurer, M.
Kecskemethy, H.H., Herman, D., May, R., Paul, K., Bachrach, S.J. & Henderson RC.
Verschuren, O., Ketelaar, M., Takken, T., Helders, P.J.M. & Gorter, J. W.
Herman, D., May, R., Vogel, L., Johnson, J. & Henderson, RC.
Section on Pediatrics Research Summit Proceedings
Fowler, E.G., Kolobe, T.H.A., Damiano, D.L., Thorpe, D.E., Morgan, D.W., Brunstrom, J.E., Coster, W.J., Henderson, R.C., Pitetti, K.H., Rimmer, J.H., Rose, J. & Stevenson, R.D.
It elaborates on the take-home message from that talk, which was to promote activity in children and adults with cerebral palsy and other central nervous system disorders.
Wright, F.V. & Jutai, J.W.
Israeli-Mendlovic, H., Mendlovic, J. & Katz-Leurer, M.
Gudjonsdottir, B. & Stemmons Mercer V.